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All three scientists were honoured for their investigations of brain function, Wiesel and Hubel in particular for their collaborative studies of the visual cortex, which is located in the occipital lobes of the cerebrum.
Black-American physician and surgeon who was an authority on the preservation of human blood for transfusion.
He organized and directed the blood-plasma programs of the United States and Great Britain in the early years of World War II, while also agitating the authorities to stop excluding the blood of blacks from plasma-supply networks. Hungarian-American physicist and physiologist who received the 1961 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea by which sound is analyzed and communicated in the cochlea, a portion of the inner ear.
Békésy developed anatomical techniques that allowed rapid, nondestructive dissection of the cochlea.
Swiss microbiologist corecipient (with Americans Daniel Nathans and Hamilton Othanel Smith) of the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.
Although others before him had attributed earthquakes to vibration during the passage of earth-waves, Mallet studied them with greater detail, using the approach of an exact science.
John Playfair effectively championed Hutton's theory. Hutton, in effect, was the founder of modern geology, replacing a belief in the role of a biblical flood forming the Earth's crust.
He introduced an understanding of the action of great heat beneath the Earth's crust in fusing sedimentary rocks, and the elevation of land forms from levels below the ocean to high land in a cyclical process.
As ransom for his life, he was forced to hand over his possessions, including his Nobel Prize money, and Loewi escaped to England. His research showed that it was the release of a certain chemical (the transmitter) acetylcholine, that enabled the transmission of nerve impulses.
Loewi also investigated action of drugs able to blockade or assist nerve impulse transmission.«. Cuban pathologist and bacteriologist who was a member of the Reed Yellow Fever Board of the U. Army that discovered (1901) the role of the mosquito in the transmission of yellow fever. Agramonte had acquired immunity to yellow fever from a mild childhood case in Cuba before emigrating to the U.