Updating hdd firmware with another

Almost all electronic devices beyond the simplest contain some firmware.

Firmware is held in non-volatile memory devices such as ROM, EPROM, or flash memory.

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Although the Kaspersky Lab report did not explicitly claim that this group is part of the United States National Security Agency (NSA), evidence obtained from the code of various Equation Group software suggests that they are part of the NSA.

Firmware can either provide a standardized operating environment for the device's more complex software (allowing more hardware-independence), or, for less complex devices, act as the device's complete operating system, performing all control, monitoring and data manipulation functions.

Typical examples of devices containing firmware are embedded systems, consumer appliances, computers, computer peripherals, and others.

Most computer peripherals are themselves special-purpose computers.

Devices such as printers, scanners, cameras and USB flash drives have internally stored firmware; some devices may also permit field upgrading of their firmware.

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