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The list also has no record of Kings from the second intermediate period.Royal list from Saqqara - Discovered in the tomb of the Royal scribe Thunery at Saqquara.Because of the poor condition, piecing the fragments together has proven to be difficult.These lists have been used to create a comparative dating system for many sites and artefacts by comparing them with the cartouches found on objects uncovered."Furthermore, it looks like Manetho "cooked the books," stretching out the history of Egypt as long as he could get away with, by adding years which did not exist, listing kings who shared the throne (co-regencies) as ruling alone, and dynasties as proceeding one after another, when many may have overlapped, especially during the intermediate periods.Nevertheless, Manetho's history is still considered the foundation of Egyptian chronology.The traditional sources for this study are: ancient records and inscriptions, radio-carbon dating and archaeo-astronomy.
More serious is that the original text of Manetho is no longer available; what we have are garbled editions quoted by two late Roman writers (Eusebius and Africanus), plus an excerpt from Josephus.
When first excavated, it had a partially eroded hieroglyphic phrase near the bottom which included a syllable in the name Khafre. " The Sphinx stela shows, in line thirteen, the cartouche of Khephren. Modern Egyptology text books link the construction of the Sphinx to the 4th dynasty Pharaoh Khafre.
I believe that to indicate an excavation carried out by that prince, following which, the almost certain proof that the Sphinx was already buried in sand by the time of Khafre and his predecessors." - Gaston Maspero - surveyed the Sphinx in the 1920's Carbon 14 dating analysis on a single mortar sample from between two blocks in the Sphinx Temple produced two different dates from two different laboratories: one of 2086 B. Alternate theories continue to be put forth, mostly from outside academic Egyptology or Archaeology.
The bulge of rock on the chest is all that remains of what may have once been a smaller sculpted figure.
The 'Stella' (that dark rectangular monument) between the paws and in front of the chest was erected during the brief reign of Thothmoses IV (1420-1411 BC). Many Egyptologists accept this as evidence that Khafre built the Sphinx. Some time after it was excavated, the particular inscription in question flaked off and we now have only drawings. in a research project conducted by Mark Lehner in 1985-86.