Roman numeral dating system

C., Latin evolved gradually, but we do not know under what influences, because very few works from this time have survived.

Those text were often freely translated from Greek or written in imitation of Greek.

The arch erected in 114 in Benevento in honor of Emperor Trajan.

It bears the inscription: IMP(eratori) CAESARI DIVI NERVAE FILIO NERVAE TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG(usto) GERMANICO DACICO PONTIF(ici) MAX(imo) TRIB(unicia) POTEST(ate) XVIII IMP(eratori) VII CO(n)S(uli) VI P(atri) P(atriae) FORTISSIMO PRINCIPI SENATVS P(opulus)Q(ue) R(omanus) (To emperor Caesar, son of the divine Nerva, Nerva Trajan Optimus Augustus, victor of the Germans and Dacians, high priest invested eighteen times of the tribunitian might, proclaimed imperator seven times, consul six times, father of the country, a very brave prince, the Senate and People of Rome).

The Greek historian Polybius, in the middle of the Republican time, mentions the first treaty between Rome and Carthage (452 B.

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As a consequence, one could wonder whether the Romans did not learn the alphabet directly from the Greeks.Today, we generally call "Classical Latin" the literary language derived from the old Latin, from which it had already diverged.In fact, in daily life, the inhabitants of the Roman Empire, especially from the second century, spoke a far less literary language, known as Vulgar Latin, which had become different in vocabulary, grammar and, with the course of time, pronunciation.So they pronounced the greek letters Γ (gamma) and K (kappa) in the same way.For the Romans, who made the distinction, this led to some confusion, in the writing and reading of names in particular. To avoid this ambiguity, the Romans created a new letter, G, by adding a horizontal bar to the C, a letter which was somewhat redundant with the K.

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